The paper deals with a profitability analysis developed for a plant that recycles spent hydrodesulphurization (HDS) catalysts. Such catalysts contain molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), and vanadium (V), supported by an alumina (Al2O3) carrier. The recycling process is based on a double thermal pre-treatment stage, followed by a series of hydrometallurgical steps that allow recovering Mo and V and a Ni concentrate that need further refining for separation and recovery of the metals. The economic analysis is based on the discounted cash flow method, and the baseline case analyses show that the net present value (NPV) is 14,877 thousand EUR. The selling price of vanadium pentoxide strongly influences the results. Alternative scenarios are also studied to strengthen the results obtained, considering the sensitivity, scenario and risk analyses. Profitability is confirmed in 87% of the considered scenarios, and in about 81.5%, the NPV of the baseline scenario is achieved. Circular economy models can be realized if products are recovered and if there are technologies that can recover metals. This study confirms that an example of a circular economy is met from the proposed viability analysis, and the economic benefits can be significant.
2023, SUSTAINABLE MATERIALS AND TECHNOLOGIES, Pages e00634- (volume: 36)
A feasibility study for a circular approach in oil refining: Metals recovery from hydrodesulphurization catalysts (01a Articolo in rivista)
D'Adamo I., Ippolito N. M., Shalchian H., Innocenzi V., Ferella F., Veglio F.
Gruppo di ricerca: Industrial Organization and Management